(Editor’s Note: This post was originally published in April 2017 and has recently been updated for accuracy and clarity)
Switching to a virtual phone system has many advantages for your business. Many forward-thinking companies choose cloud-based phone systems because they are simpler, more efficient, more cost effective, and more secure than legacy voice-communication providers, such as landlines or PBX phone systems.
However, despite these benefits, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) phone providers have a reputation for quality issues. Thoughts of call latency, network congestion, and “jitter” keep many sales and support team leaders awake at night!
And if you’re reading this, you probably know that a strong, stable internet connection goes a long way toward fixing common VoIP problems, but it doesn’t always guarantee a seamless experience. So to get you back on the road to reliable call quality, we’ll outline the most common VoIP issues and offer no-nonsense troubleshooting tips for each.
The Source(s) of Your VoIP Problems
To understand what could be going wrong, it’s important to have a high-level understanding of how VoIP calls are made.
When a VoIP user speaks into a microphone, that raw audio is converted into a digitized stream and compressed into data “packets” ranging from 10-40 milliseconds each. Those individual packets are transmitted sequentially through the user’s device, the router, and the VoIP software’s media server (e.g. Twilio or Plivo). This process continues through a carrier network, all the way to a recipient’s device, then it repeats in the reverse direction.
This multi-step journey presents plenty of opportunities for things to go wrong. You can’t personally step in and fix issues with the carrier or the recipient, but other hiccups can be addressed. The dotted-line box in the image above describes which phases of the call process you can influence directly. That’s where we’ll focus our attention.
Types of VoIP call quality issues
VoIP issues can make calls difficult or even impossible, from echoing and popping noises, to distortion, one-way-audio, and dropped calls. When your call quality suffers, it may be due to one, or several, of the following:
Audio latency. Latency (delays) can occur when the raw audio is being compressed or when the compressed audio is traveling through the initial provider network (Twilio, etc.). Latency won’t affect the quality of the audio, but it will throw off the delivery-timing. In the most pronounced cases of latency, call participants will “speak-over” one another, with the audio arriving at the recipient’s device at irregular and awkward intervals.
Jitter. Jitter occurs when packets are delivered to a recipient at irregular intervals. Audio must be played at a constant rhythm to be intelligible, so any discrepancy will be noticeable in conversation. VoIP service providers may build in jitter buffers, but sometimes latency will go beyond the buffer’s capacities. If this happens, you’ll hear missing or “skipped” audio (if the packets are being delivered too quickly) or lapses of silence (to account for slow packet delivery).
Packet loss. If packets are lost, delayed, or contain errors, the network may drop and abandon them before reaching their intended destination. This is usually due to bandwidth restrictions or an unreliable internet connection. The result is missing chunks of audio.
Call quality issues are usually related
A high-speed internet connection alone won’t necessarily solve your VoIP issues. In reality, these issues are somewhat interconnected and rarely happen in isolation. Your network needs to be properly configured in order to get the absolute most out of your phone system.
Solving VoIP Issues: Check your network
Optimizing your network is a serious endeavor, but with informed planning and guidance, it only needs to be done once, and you’ll see the benefits immediately.
Set aside network bandwidth just for VoIP
Without sufficient bandwidth, VoIP call quality will always be at risk. Voice packets travel through many stages before they reach a recipient, including access points, routers, switches, and more. Every step is a potential bottleneck and source of frustration.
Network prioritization is your best bet for troubleshooting VoIP quality problems. When users on your network use multiple applications simultaneously, this consumes bandwidth and clogs up your network, like a highway during rush hour.
If lanes aren’t properly designated, congestion will quickly build up, and traffic will eventually slow to a stop. Think of network prioritization as adding carpool, emergency vehicle, and “Exit Only” lanes to our metaphorical highway (and assume this is in a world where traffic signs are actually obeyed). Reserving space for specific purposes won’t eliminate traffic congestion completely, but it will allow high-priority vehicles (whether it be voice data or ambulances) to travel unhindered when necessary.
With network prioritization, you can designate a few lanes (i.e. bandwidth) for VoIP calls only. This will make sure there’s plenty of space for your conversations to maneuver. In the industry, this earmarking process is called Quality of Service (QoS). It ensures voice packets have higher bandwidth priority than other data packets.
Setup requires configuring your router’s bandwidth specifications . This task can be a bit complicated and should be done by an IT professional. (If you’re using Aircall’s VoIP software, we can remotely configure your router for you).
The graphs below show how an Aircall client reduced latency and packet loss after setting up QoS on their router.
These numbers aren’t terrible, but they’re still prominent enough to produce occasional call quality issues. Here’s what happened after QoS:
(Maybe it’s just us, but we think that’s one of the most beautiful before-and-after pictures on the entire internet.)
When possible, avoid WiFi for better call quality
Placing calls through a WiFi network means you’re more likely to experience VoIP issues. WiFi coverage can be spotty, leading to inconsistent experiences around your office. This is because:
Most expensive, professional-grade routers need to be manually configured
Wifi was not designed with real-time applications in mind
There are likely many internet-connected devices using your WiFi network, competing for bandwidth
Using WiFi for VoIP calls usually produces acceptable results, but an ethernet connection will guarantee the highest quality connection.
Ethernet also helps bypass the problem of interference. Smartphones, microwaves, and even fluorescent lights near an audio input can cause popping, crackling, or humming noises during your call.
VoIP quality and cell phone usage
One advantage of VoIP systems is their accessibility through mobile apps. Some functionality will be limited outside of the desktop app, but mobile applications allow sales and support agents greater mobility in terms of remote work and efficiency.
In terms of voice quality, VoIP calls made on a cell phone will be roughly equivalent to calls made using other voice-only IP methods, like FaceTime audio. Prioritizing voice traffic on your cell phone or other mobile device is possible, but likely time consuming—you’ll have to disable cellular data for apps you aren’t currently using.
Generally speaking, a strong LTE connection should be enough to ensure VoIP call quality. Whenever in a public place, it’s best to not rely on communal internet service, as there will already be a lot of network congestion.
Solving VoIP issues: How’s your headset?
They may not look like troublemakers, but headphones are responsible for more VoIP issues than you might expect. As headphones become more sophisticated, they also become more complex.
Some headphones will disconnect from phone apps if the user stays silent for too long, and others will refuse to be recognized by certain operating systems. Sound distortion and one-way audio can occur when a headset microphone picks up the incoming audio. Most VoIP providers will recommend a professional-grade option they know will work with their software (Aircall’s go-to is the Jabra Evolve 40).
Still having VoIP problems?
This guide isn’t exhaustive, and VoIP issues are sometimes difficult to replicate, diagnose, and fix. At Aircall, we want each and every one of our users to have an easy time using our VoIP service, which is why we’re always trying to improve.
As a VoIP provider, Aircall provides ongoing quality assurance for customers and free router configuration to preserve network bandwidth.
If you’re experiencing an issue we didn’t cover, feel free to check out our knowledge base or reach out to our support team: firstname.lastname@example.org .
Published on January 2, 2024.